Electrocardiogram in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with a speculation as to the mechanism of its features

J. E. Madias

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


A variety of electrocardiogram (ECG) alterations in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM) have been described in the literature, but no relevant quantitative analysis has been provided; thus the objective of this communication was to review the relevant literature and using two cases of patients with AHCM, to provide such a quantitative analysis. Using PubMed to search the literature 13 studies on the ECG in patients with AHCM were identified and evaluated; also a quantitative analysis of the ECG attributes in two patients was carried out. Qualitative ECG features from the literature on patients with AHCM is discussed. Also a description of the ECG in two patients with AHCM has identified as typical features truly giant QRS complexes in the precordial leads, particularly in lead V4, with rightward superior, and posterior shift of the T-wave vector, the latter being a newly described ECG correlate of AHCM. A speculation as to the possible mechanism of the observed ECG features is included.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)268-271
Number of pages4
JournalNetherlands Heart Journal
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Electrocardiogram
  • Electrophysiology
  • Giant R-waves
  • Giant T-waves
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy


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