Effects of different forms of central nervous system prophylaxis on neuropsychologic function in chilhood leukemia

J. H. Rowland, O. J. Glidewell, R. F. Sibley, J. C. Holland, R. Tull, A. Berman, M. L. Brecher, M. Harris, A. S. Glicksman, E. Forman

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Abstract

A comparison of the late effects on intellectual and neuropsychologic function of three different CNS 'prophylaxis' regimens was conducted in 104 patients treated for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Of the children studied, 33 were randomized to treatment with intrathecal (IT) methotrexate alone, 36 to IT methotrexate plus 2,400 rad cranial irradiation, and 35 to IT methotrexate plus intravenous intermediate dose methotrexate. All patients were in their first (complete) continuous remission, were a minimum of one year post-CNS prophylaxis and had no evidence of CNS disease at the time of evaluation. In contrast to the other two treatment groups, children whose CNS prophylaxis included cranial irradiation attained significantly lower mean Full Scale IQs (P < .001), performed more poorly on the Wide Range Achievement Test, a measure of school abilities, and exhibited a greater number of difficulties on a variety of other neuropsychologic measures. The poorer performance of the irradiated group was independent of sex of the patient, time since treatment and age at diagnosis. These data suggest that the addition of 2,400 rad cranial irradiation to CNS prophylaxis in ALL puts these children at greater risk for mild global loss in intellectual and neuropsychologic ability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1327-1335
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Volume2
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 1984

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