Effects of cigarette smoking on influenza virus/host interplay

Jerald Chavez, Rong Hai

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Cigarette smoking has been shown to increase the risk of respiratory infection, resulting in the exacerbation of infectious disease outcomes. Influenza viruses are a major respiratory viral pathogen, which are responsible for yearly epidemics that result in between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths in the US alone. However, there are limited general summaries on the impact of cigarette smoking on influenza pathogenic outcomes. Here, we will provide a systematic summarization of the current understanding of the interplay of smoking and influenza viral infection with a focus on examining how cigarette smoking affects innate and adaptive immune responses, inflammation levels, tissues that contribute to systemic chronic inflammation, and how this affects influenza A virus (IAV) disease outcomes. This summarization will: (1) help to clarify the conflict in the reports on viral pathogenicity; (2) fill knowledge gaps regarding critical anti-viral defenses such as antibody responses to IAV; and (3) provide an updated understanding of the underlying mechanism behind how cigarette smoking influences IAV pathogenicity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1636
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Host response
  • Influenza virus
  • Smoking


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