After an injury, axons in the central nervous system do not regenerate over large distances and permanently lose their connections to the brain. Two promising approaches to correct this condition are cell and gene therapies. In the present work, we evaluated the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative potential of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) gene therapy alone and combined with human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) therapy after optic nerve injury by analysis of retinal ganglion cell survival and axonal outgrowth. Overexpression of PEDF by intravitreal delivery of AAV2 vector significantly increased Tuj1-positive cells survival and modulated FGF-2, IL-1ß, Iba-1, and GFAP immunostaining in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) at 4 weeks after optic nerve crush, although it could not promote axonal outgrowth. The combination of AAV2.PEDF and hMSC therapy showed a higher number of Tuj1-positive cells and a pronounced axonal outgrowth than unimodal therapy after optic nerve crush. In summary, our results highlight a synergistic effect of combined gene and cell therapy relevant for future therapeutic interventions regarding optic nerve injury.