Echocardiography in functional midgut neuroendocrine tumors: When and how often

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7 Scopus citations


The management of patients with midgut neuroendocrine tumors (MNET) is rapidly evolving. Current preoperative detection rates of primary tumor sites are higher than ever and progression-free survival in patients with already advanced disease is expanding due to the implementation of novel efficacious treatment strategies. This survival benefit may potentially translate into a need for a multidisciplinary approach to an even more heterogenous variety of clinical conditions, among these, carcinoid syndrome (CS) and carcinoid heart disease (CHD). The latter often triggers substantial morbidity and mortality, hence a systematic screening, an accurate diagnosis, as well as effective interventions are critically important. The rarity of the disease has result in a relative lack of statistically powerful evidence, which in turn may have rendered significant variability between practices. In this regard, despite recent guidelines, the optimal follow-up of patients with CHD remain debatable to some authors, perhaps due to the preponderance of certain schools throughout the manuscript. Herein, we present a concise and practical guidance document on clinical screening and echocardiographic surveillance of patients with CHD based on a comprehensive review of the literature, and complemented by our experience at the Center for Carcinoid and Neuroendocrine Tumors at The Mount Sinai Hospital.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)411-421
Number of pages11
JournalReviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2017


  • Carcinoid heart disease
  • Carcinoid syndrome
  • Echocardiography
  • Heart valve disease
  • Liver metastases
  • Neuroendocrine tumors


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