Objectives: Radiation segmentectomy using yttrium-90 plays an emerging role in the management of early-stage HCC. However, the value of early post-treatment MRI for response assessment is uncertain. We assessed the value of response criteria obtained early after radiation segmentectomy in predicting long-term response in patients with HCC. Materials and methods: Patients with HCC who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI before, early, and 12 months after radiation segmentectomy were included in this retrospective single-center study. Three independent radiologists reviewed images at baseline and 1st follow-up after radiation segmentectomy and assessed lesion-based response according to mRECIST, LI-RADS treatment response algorithm (TRA), and image subtraction. The endpoint was response at 12 months based on consensus readout of two separate radiologists. Diagnostic accuracy for predicting complete response (CR) at 12 months based on the 1st post-treatment MRI was calculated. Results: Eighty patients (M/F 60/20, mean age 67.7 years) with 80 HCCs were assessed (median size baseline, 1.8 cm [IQR, 1.4–2.9 cm]). At 12 months, 74 patients were classified as CR (92.5%), 5 as partial response (6.3%), and 1 as progressive disease (1.2%). Diagnostic accuracy for predicting CR was fair to good for all readers with excellent positive predictive value (PPV): mRECIST (range between 3 readers, accuracy: 0.763–0.825, PPV: 0.966–1), LI-RADS TRA (accuracy: 0.700–0.825, PPV: 0.983–1), and subtraction (accuracy: 0.775–0.825, PPV: 0.967–1), with no difference in accuracy between criteria (p range 0.053 to > 0.9). Conclusion: mRECIST, LI-RADS TRA, and subtraction obtained on early post-treatment MRI show similar performance for predicting long-term response in patients with HCC treated with radiation segmentectomy. Clinical relevance statement: Response assessment extracted from early post-treatment MRI after radiation segmentectomy predicts complete response in patients with HCC with high PPV (≥ 0.96). Key Points: • Early post-treatment response assessment on MRI predicts response in patients with HCC treated with radiation segmentectomy with fair to good accuracy and excellent positive predictive value. • There was no difference in diagnostic accuracy between mRECIST, LI-RADS, and subtraction for predicting HCC response to radiation segmentectomy.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Radiology
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Carcinoma, hepatocellular
  • Liver neoplasms
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Yttrium radioisotopes


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