Objectives: To analyze factors during early stage of urinary tract infection (UTI) that are associated with development of chronic UTI. Methods: Mice were inoculated with Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) 2 times 24 hours apart. At 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days post infection (dpi), urine bacterial loads and voiding behavior (voiding spot assay, VSA) were measured. At 1 and 28 dpi, 32 urine inflammatory cytokines/chemokines were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Bladder and kidney cytokines/chemokines were measured on 28 dpi. Mice that had no more than 1 episode of urine bacterial load < 104 colony forming unit/ml during the entire 4 weeks were defined as susceptible to chronic UTI, otherwise, mice were considered resistant. Results: At 28 dpi, 64.3% mice developed chronic UTI (susceptible group) and 35.7% mice did not (resistant group). Factors at 1 dpi that were predictive of chronic UTI included increased urine IL-2 (OR 11.9, 95%CI 1.1-130.8, P = .043) and increased urine IL-10 (OR 14.0, 95%CI 1.0-201.2, P = .052). At 28 dpi, there were several significant differences between the susceptible vs resistant groups including urine/tissue bacterial loads and certain urine/tissue cytokines/chemokines. Conclusions: Higher urine IL-2 and IL-10 at 1 dpi predicted chronic UTI infection in this model. There have been recent publications associating both of these cytokines to UTI susceptibility. Further explorations into IL-2 and IL-10 mediated pathways could shed light on the biology of recurrent and chronic UTI which are difficult to treat.