Drinking water for approximately 23 million US households is obtained from private wells. These wells can become contaminated by pollutant chemicals or pathogenic organisms, leading to significant illness. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency and all states offer guidance for construction, maintenance, and testing of private wells, most states only regulate the construction of new private water wells. With a few exceptions, there is little regulation after construction. Well owners are responsible for their own wells. Children may also drink well water at child care or when traveling. Illness resulting from children’s ingestion of contaminated water can be severe. This report reviews relevant aspects of groundwater and wells; describes the common chemical and microbiologic contaminants; gives an algorithm with recommendations for inspection, testing, and remediation for wells providing drinking water for children; and provides references and Internet resources for more information.