Summary: Large-scale transcriptome studies with multiple samples per individual are widely used to study disease biology. Yet, current methods for differential expression are inadequate for cross-individual testing for these repeated measures designs. Most problematic, we observe across multiple datasets that current methods can give reproducible false-positive findings that are driven by genetic regulation of gene expression, yet are unrelated to the trait of interest. Here, we introduce a statistical software package, dream, that increases power, controls the false positive rate, enables multiple types of hypothesis tests, and integrates with standard workflows. In 12 analyses in 6 independent datasets, dream yields biological insight not found with existing software while addressing the issue of reproducible false-positive findings. Contact: gabriel.hoffman@mssm.edu

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)192-201
Number of pages10
Issue number2
StatePublished - 15 Jan 2021


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