Double-barrel iliocaval reconstruction using closed-cell dedicated venous stents

Ricki A. Korff, Vivian L. Bishay, Aaron M. Fischman, Edward Kim, F. Scott Nowakowski, Rahul S. Patel, Rami O. Tadros, Windsor Ting, Ageliki G. Vouyouka, Robert A. Lookstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Double-barrel iliocaval reconstruction is performed by deploying two stents simultaneously in a side-by-side, or “double-barrel,” configuration in the inferior vena cava (IVC) with extension into the bilateral common iliac veins. The aim of this study was to examine the outcomes of double-barrel reconstruction using closed-cell dedicated venous stents for the treatment of iliocaval deep venous thrombosis and iliac vein compression syndrome. Methods: All endovascular procedural reports comprising vascular surgery and interventional radiology operators from a single urban academic hospital between May 1, 2019, and April 30, 2021, were retrospectively searched. A cohort of 22 consecutive patients who underwent double-barrel iliocaval stenting with closed-cell dedicated venous stents for chronic or acute-on-chronic iliocaval venous disease without prior endovascular iliocaval repair was identified. Baseline characteristics, procedural data, and patient outcomes were determined via a manual review of preprocedure clinical notes, diagnostic imaging studies, procedure notes and images, and follow-up clinical notes. Results: The median (range) age was 59 (27-81) years, and the cohort consisted of 59.1% female. The most common presenting symptoms of venous disease were lower extremity swelling (90.9%) and pain (50.0%). CEAP clinical classification was C3 in 86.4% of patients, whereas the remainder had C4 disease. Most patients (72.7%) had post-thrombotic syndrome, 22.7% had a nonthrombotic iliac vein lesion, and one patient (4.5%) had the congenital absence of the infrarenal IVC. A total of 40.9% of patients had a pre-existing IVC filter at the time of treatment. Six of the 22 patients underwent concurrent pharmacomechanical thrombectomy during the index iliocaval reconstruction and stenting procedure. The number of stents placed ranged from 2 to 5. With a mean follow-up period of 7.1 months, ranging from 12 days to 16.7 months, the freedom from reintervention rate was 90.9%. Twenty of 22 patients achieved subjective improvement or resolution of symptoms. The major adverse event rate was 9.1%, as two patients had access site complications requiring intervention. Conclusions: Double-barrel iliocaval reconstruction with closed-cell dedicated venous stents for the treatment of post-thrombotic syndrome or iliac vein compression syndrome is technically feasible and clinically effective with a low reintervention rate.

Keywords

  • Closed-cell stent
  • Iliocaval reconstruction
  • Nonthrombotic iliac vein lesion
  • Post-thrombotic syndrome
  • Venous stenting

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