Dose-dependent and independent temporal patterns of gene responses to ionizing radiation in normal and tumor cells and tumor xenografts

Nikolai N. Khodarev, James O. Park, Jianqing Yu, Nalin Gupta, Edwardine Nodzenski, Bernard Roizman, Ralph R. Weichselbaum

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U87 cells derived from human malignant gliomas and growtharrested human embryonic lung (HEL) fibroblasts were examined with respect to their response to ionizing radiation by profiling their RNAs. In the first series of experiments, cells grown in vitro were harvested and the RNAs were extracted 5 h after exposure to 1, 3, or 10 Gy. In the second series of experiments the U87 tumors were implanted in nude mice and subjected to the same doses of irradiation. The xenografts were harvested at 1, 5, or 24 h after irradiation and subjected to the same analyses. We observed and report on (i) cell-type common and cell-type specific responses, (ii) genes induced at low levels of irradiation but not at higher doses, (iii) temporal patterns of gene response in U87 xenografts that varied depending on radiation dose and temporal patterns of response that were similar at all doses tested, (iv) significantly higher up-regulation of cells in xenografts than in In vitro cultures, and (v) genes highly up-regulated by radiation. The responding genes could be grouped into nine functional clusters. The representation of the nine clusters was to some extent dependent on dose and time after irradiation. The results suggest that clinical outcome of ionizing radiation treatment may benefit significantly by taking into account both cell-type and radiation-dose specificity of cellular responses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12665-12670
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number22
StatePublished - 23 Oct 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • CDNA arrays
  • Gene clusters
  • Radiotherapy
  • Timecourse
  • Transcription

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