Does Older Age Modify Associations between Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Fecundability?

Anna Z. Pollack, Jenna R. Krall, Shanna H. Swan, Germaine M. Buck Louis

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3 Scopus citations


Urinary concentrations of several endocrine disrupting chemicals, including phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A (BPA), and benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters, have been associated with a longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP). Potential modification of these associations by cou-ple’s age has not been studied. TTP was defined as the number of prospectively observed menstrual cycles a couple attempted pregnancy until the occurrence of a human chorionic gonadotropic-de-tected pregnancy. Urinary concentrations of two BP-type UV filters and three phthalate metabolites were measured at baseline. Fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for each chemical adjusting for age, body mass index, serum cotinine, creatinine, and accounting for right censoring and left truncation. Models evaluated effect modification between EDC concentrations and TTP by partner’s age, dichotomized at 35 years. Separate models were run for male and female partners. No significant effect modification was observed for any EDC for either partner, but data were suggestive of a longer TTP among females aged ≥35 years, partic-ularly for BP-2 (FOR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.36, 1.05) and 4-hydroxybenzophenone (FOR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.09) reflecting 39% and 29% reductions in fecundability, respectively. We saw no evidence of effect modification by couples’ age on associations between TTP and urinary phthalate or BPA metabolite concentrations. Across the EDCs we examined, we found little evidence that age modifies TTP-exposure associations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8074
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number13
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2022


  • benzophenone
  • bisphenol
  • couples
  • effect modification
  • endocrine disrupting
  • fertility
  • phthalate
  • ultraviolet filter


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