Does body mass index influence long-term outcomes after anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty?

Christopher A. White, Akshar V. Patel, Carl M. Cirino, Kevin C. Wang, Benjamin D. Gross, Bradford O. Parsons, Evan L. Flatow, Paul J. Cagle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: As of 2018, upwards of 42% of the US adult population was considered obese based on body mass index (BMI) scales. With the annual number of total joint replacements increasing, this study aimed to evaluate the impact BMI has on anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (aTSA) outcomes. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 128 shoulders requiring primary aTSA. Patients were stratified into 3 cohorts based on their BMI at surgery: underweight/normal weight (U/NW; BMI ≤25.0), overweight (25.0 < BMI ≤ 30.0), and obese (BMI >30.0). BMI was separately analyzed as a continuous variable. Clinical endpoints were range of motion scores, including forward elevation, external rotation, and internal rotation, and patient-reported outcomes, including visual analog scale (VAS) scores, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES) scores, and the Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Survivorship curves were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Forty-four, 50, and 34 patient shoulders were in the U/NW, overweight, and obese cohorts, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 11.4 years. The U/NW cohort had more females (73%) compared with the overweight (34%; P = .0030) and obese (35%; P = .0015) groups; no differences were seen in revision rates. BMI was negatively correlated with age at surgery (r = −0.19, P = .014); it was not correlated with any of the 6 postoperative clinical endpoints. All 3 cohorts saw significant improvements in forward elevation, external rotation, internal rotation and VAS, ASES, and SST scores when compared preoperatively to postoperatively (P < .001). There were no significant differences between the 3 cohorts with respect to postoperative range of motion. Postoperative ASES scores were higher for the overweight cohort (82.6 ± 18.6) compared with both the U/NW (63.0 ± 25.1) and obese cohorts (70.5 ± 26.8) (P < .001). The overweight cohort also had higher SST (P = .0012) postoperative scores compared with the U/NW and obese cohorts; VAS scores were comparable between groups (P = .12). The nonobese (BMI <30) group (n = 94) showed 5-, 10-, and 15-year implant survival of 98.9%, 94.9%, and 83.9%, respectively compared to 97.1%, 93.7%, and 87.0% in the obese (BMI ≥30) group (n = 34). The log rank test revealed no significant difference in survival curves (P = .82). Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the longest follow-up study analyzing clinical endpoints stratified by BMI for aTSA. We saw that patients with a higher BMI required shoulder replacement at a significantly younger age. However, we also report that regardless of BMI, all patients saw significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes and range of motion scores postoperatively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)991-1000
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023


  • Level III
  • Prognosis Study
  • Retrospective Cohort Comparison
  • Shoulder arthroplasty
  • body mass index
  • long term
  • patient-reported outcomes
  • range of motion


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