Do Infection-Associated Stone Subtypes Behave the Same Clinically? A Retrospective Bicenter Study

Baruch Popovtzer, Johnathan A. Khusid, Jacob N. Bamberger, Dara J. Lundon, Blair Gallante, Areeba S. Sadiq, William M. Atallah, David Lifshitz, Mantu Gupta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Introduction and Objectives: Infection-associated renal stones are commonly composed of magnesium-ammonium-phosphate (MAP) and carbonate apatite (CA). The clinical implications of these two different, but closely related stone types, are unknown. We sought to compare the clinical, microbiologic, and metabolic characteristics of patients with MAP and CA stone types. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients from two centers (one in the United States and one in Israel) who underwent ureteroscopy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy between 2012 and 2020 and identified patients with a predominant stone analysis component of CA or MAP and clinical data supporting an infection stone. We analyzed and compared demographic data, medical history, postoperative fever, stone and urinary microbiology, and 24-hour urine studies. Results: A total of 79 and 75 patients met the inclusion criteria for the MAP and CA cohorts, respectively. No significant difference was found in patient demographics or comorbidities between the MAP and CA cohort. Female predominance was noted in both. Although there were no significant differences in 24-hour urine parameters between the cohorts, hypercalciuria was common in both cohorts (38% and 32% of patients in the MAP and CA cohorts, respectively). Gram-negative bacteria were more common in the MAP stone cultures. Postoperative fever was significantly more common in the MAP cohort (14.7% vs 3.8%, p < 0.016). Conclusions: MAP and CA stone formers share similar demographic characteristics with a clear female predominance. MAP stones patients appear more likely to develop postoperative fever, possibly related to a higher occurrence of gram-negative bacteria in the stone cultures of the MAP cohort. Although there were no significant differences among metabolic parameters, hypercalciuria was noted in approximately a third of the cohort. The clinical significance of this finding is yet to be determined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)688-693
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Endourology
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2022


  • MAP
  • carbonate apatite
  • infection stone
  • metabolic evaluation
  • struvite


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