Many patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) will develop cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional studies have shown that certain protein levels are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PD patients with dementia and are thought to represent potential biomarkers of underlying pathogenesis. Recent studies suggest that CSF biomarker levels may be predictive of future risk of cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. However, the strength of this evidence and difference between specific CSF biomarkers is not well delineated. We therefore performed a systematic review to assess if levels of specific CSF protein biomarkers are predictive of progression to cognitive impairment. Nine articles were identified that met inclusion criteria for the review. Findings from the review suggest a convergence of evidence that a low baseline Aβ42 in the CSF of non-demented PD patients predicts development of cognitive impairment over time. Conversely, there is limited evidence that CSF levels of tau, either total tau or phosphorylated tau, is a useful predictive biomarker. There are mixed results for other CSF biomarkers such as α-synuclein, Neurofilament light chain, and Heart fatty acid-binding protein. Overall the results of this review show that certain CSF biomarkers have better predictive ability to identify PD patients who are at risk for developing cognitive impairment. Given the interest in developing disease-modifying therapies, identifying this group will be important for clinical trials as initiation of therapy prior to the onset of cognitive decline is likely to be more efficacious.
- CSF biomarkers
- Parkinson’s Disease