Diurnal rhythm of galanin-like immunoreactivity in the paraventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei and other hypothalamic areas

Akira Akabayashi, C. T.B.V. Zaia, James I. Koenig, Steven M. Gabriel, Ivan Silva, Sarah F. Leibowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations

Abstract

The peptide galanin (GAL), when injected into the rat hypothalamus, is known to stimulate feeding behavior and affect the secretion of various hormones, including insulin and the adrenal steroid, corticosterone. To determine whether endogenous peptide levels shift in relation to natural rhythms of feeding and circulating hormone levels, rats were sacrificed at different times of the light/dark cycle, and their GAL levels were measured, via radioimmunoassay, in medial hypothalamic dissections and micropunched hypothalamic areas. The results suggest the existence of two distinct diurnal rhythms for hypothalamic GAL. One rhythm, detected exclusively in the area of the SCN, is characterized by bimodal peaks of GAL, threefold higher than basal peptide levels, around the onset of the dark and light periods. The second rhythm shows a single peak of GAL towards the middle of the nocturnal feeding cycle, specifically between the third and sixth hour. This latter rhythm is evident in the dorsal region of the medial hypothalamus, localized specifically to the lateral portion of the PVN. Moreover, it is inversely related to circulating insulin but unrelated to the adrenal steroids, suggesting a possible association between this pancreatic hormone and GAL in the PVN.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1437-1444
Number of pages8
JournalPeptides
Volume15
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 1994

Keywords

  • Circadian
  • Galanin
  • Hypothalamus
  • Insulin

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