Differential protein expression in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors and liver metastases

Michelle Kang Kim, Fei Ye, Daguang Wang, Miao Cui, Stephen C. Ward, Richard R.P. Warner, Sasan Roayaie, Michail Shafir, Myron Schwartz, David Zhang, Steven Itzkowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are often detected after they have become metastatic. Using a novel protein array, we identified pathways important in SI-NET metastasis development in surgically resected patients. Methods: Paired primary tumors and liver metastases from 25 patients undergoing surgical resection for metastatic SI-NETs were harvested. Extracted proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel and multiplex immunoblots were performed with 136 antibodies. Significant Analysis of Microarray was used to select for differentially expressed proteins. A tissue microarray was constructed from 27 archived specimens and stained by immunohistochemistry. Results: Comparing primary SI-NETs with matched normal small-bowel mucosa, 9 proteins were upregulated and cyclin E was downregulated. The SI-NET liver metastases demonstrated upregulation of P-ERK and p27 but downregulation of CDK2 and CDC25B. When comparing primary SI-NETwith their paired liver metastases, cyclin E demonstrated a significant upregulation in the liver metastasis. Tissue microarray demonstrated higher p38 expression and lower Cdc 25b expression in SI-NETs versus livermetastases and confirmed higher expression of p27 in liver metastases versus normal liver. Conclusions: Few studies have compared protein expression in paired primary and metastatic SI-NETs. Our findings reveal changes in a limited number of proteins, suggesting that these may be targets for therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)528-532
Number of pages5
Issue number4
StatePublished - 4 Mar 2016


  • Carcinoid
  • Liver metastasis
  • Neuroendocrine tumor
  • Proteomics
  • Small bowel


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