Our objective was to analyze gene expression pattern in muscles from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) compared to controls. Biopsied skeletal muscles from three ALS, three MMN and three control subjects had total RNA extracted and subjected to genome-wide gene expression analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip Exon 1.0 ST array. The most significant expression pattern differences were confirmed with RT-PCR in four additional ALS patients. Results showed that over 3000 genes were identified across the groups using q < 10%. Among 50 genes that were overexpressed only in the ALS group were: leucine-rich repeat kinase-2, follistatin, collagen type XIX alpha-1, ceramide kinase-like, sestrin-3 and CXorf64. No genes were significantly overexpressed in MMN alone. Underexpressed genes only in ALS included actinin α3, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase-2 and homeobox C10; whereas only in MMN: hemoglobin A1 and CXorf64. Ankyrin repeat domain-1 was overexpressed in both groups. Underexpressed genes in both groups included myosin light chain kinase-2, enolase-3 and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/ fructose-2,6-biphosphatase-1. Validation analysis using RT-PCR confirmed the data for leucine-rich repeat kinase-2, follistatin, collagen type XIX alpha-1, ceramide kinase-like, sestrin-3 and CXorf64. In conclusion, there is differential tissue-specific gene expression in patients with ALS relative to MMN and controls. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the identified genes in larger patient groups and different tissues.
- gene expression