Differential effects of the second SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine dose on T cell immunity in naive and COVID-19 recovered individuals

Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo, Carmen Camara, Eduardo Lopez-Granados, Pilar Nozal, Lucía del Pino-Molina, Luz Yadira Bravo-Gallego, Estela Paz-Artal, Marjorie Pion, Rafael Correa-Rocha, Alberto Ortiz, Marcos Lopez-Hoyos, Marta Erro Iribarren, Jose Portoles, Maria Pilar Rojo-Portoles, Gloria Ojeda, Isabel Cervera, Maria Gonzalez-Perez, Irene Bodega-Mayor, Maria Montes-Casado, Pilar PortolesMayte Perez-Olmeda, Jesus Oteo, Rodrigo Sanchez-Tarjuelo, Venu Pothula, Megan Schwarz, Manisha Brahmachary, Anthony Tanoto Tan, Nina Le Bert, Cecilia Berin, Antonio Bertoletti, Ernesto Guccione, Jordi Ochando

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68 Scopus citations


The rapid development of mRNA-based vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) led to the design of accelerated vaccination schedules that have been extremely effective in naive individuals. While a two-dose immunization regimen with the BNT162b2 vaccine has been demonstrated to provide a 95% efficacy in naive individuals, the effects of the second vaccine dose in individuals who have previously recovered from natural SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we characterize SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific humoral and cellular immunity in naive and previously infected individuals during and after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination. Our results demonstrate that, while the second dose increases both the humoral and cellular immunity in naive individuals, COVID-19 recovered individuals reach their peak of immunity after the first dose. These results suggests that a second dose, according to the current standard regimen of vaccination, may be not necessary in individuals previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109570
JournalCell Reports
Issue number8
StatePublished - 24 Aug 2021


  • BNT162b2 vaccine
  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • T-cell immunity


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