Differential effects of social isolation rearing on glutamate- and GABA-stimulated noradrenaline release in the rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus

Katie H. Atmore, Dan J. Stein, Brian H. Harvey, Vivienne A. Russell, Fleur M. Howells

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Social isolation rearing (SIR) provides an excellent model of early life adversity to investigate alterations in brain function. Few studies have investigated the effects of SIR on noradrenaline (NE) projections which arise from the locus coeruleus (LC), a system which regulates arousal and attentional processes, including the processing of novelty. In addition, there is a paucity of information on the effects of SIR in females. In this study we investigated the behavioural response to attentional processing of novelty and glutamate- and GABA-stimulated release of noradrenaline in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC) of male and female rats. Sprague Dawley pups were reared in isolated or socialised housing conditions from weaning on postnatal day 21 (P21). At P78-83 animal behaviour was recorded from the three phases of the novel object recognition (NOR) task. Then at P90-94, NE release was measured in the PFC and HC after stimulating the tissue in vitro with either glutamate or GABA. Behaviourally SIR decreased novelty-related behaviour, male isolates showed effects of SIR during the NOR Test phase while female isolates showed effects of SIR during the Habituation phase. SIR PFC NE release was decreased when glutamate stimulation followed GABA stimulation and tended to increase when GABA stimulation followed glutamate stimulation, differences were predominantly due to male isolates. No SIR differences were found for HC. Early life adversity differentially affects the function of the LC–NE system in males and females, evidenced by changes in attentional processing of novelty and stimulated noradrenaline release in the PFC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-120
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Neuropsychopharmacology
Volume36
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Female
  • Male
  • Novel-object recognition
  • Novelty
  • Open-field
  • Sex

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