To evaluate whether outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation differ according to disease type, a three-way comparison for patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n = 3318), AML evolving from myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) (n = 208), and MDS with excess blasts (MDS-EB) (n = 994) was performed. The 5-year probabilities of overall survival (OS) for de novo AML, AML evolving from MDS, and MDS-EB were 60%, 42%, and 41% (p < 0.001), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that, compared to de novo AML, AML evolving from MDS was associated with a higher risk of NRM (p = 0.030) and MDS-EB with a higher risk of relapse (p < 0.001), both leading to lower OS (p = 0.010 and p < 0.001, respectively). These findings demonstrate inter-disease differences in post-transplant outcomes and highlight the needs to reduce NRM for AML evolving from MDS and to reduce relapse for MDS-EB.
- Acute myeloid leukemia
- allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
- myelodysplastic syndrome