Did the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program Impact Sex Disparities in Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasties?

Meredith Mihalopoulos, Jeffrey Okewunmi, Brocha Z. Stern, Hsin Hui Huang, Leesa M. Galatz, Jashvant Poeran, Calin S. Moucha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Sex disparities have been noted across various aspects of total hip/knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Given incentives to standardize care, bundled payment initiatives including the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) program may reduce disparities. This study aimed to assess the CJR program's impact on sex disparities in THA/TKA care and outcomes. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 259,673 THAs (61.7% women) and 506,311 TKAs (64.0% women) from a large national database (2013 to 2017). Sex disparities were assessed for care and outcomes related to the period (1) before surgery, (2) during hospitalization for THA/TKA, and (3) after discharge. Disparities were reported as women:men ratios. Difference-in-differences analyses estimated the impact of the CJR program on pre-existing sex disparities. Results: For both THA and TKA, women were less likely than men to present with a Charlson-Deyo comorbidity index >0 (women:men ratio 0.88 to 0.92), but were more likely to require blood transfusions (women:men ratio 1.48 to 1.79) and be discharged to institutional postacute care (women:men ratio 1.50 to 1.66). Difference-in-differences models demonstrated that the CJR bundled payment program reduced sex disparities in institutional postacute care discharges (THA: −2.28%; 95% confidence interval [CI] −4.20 to −0.35%, P = .02; TKA: −2.07%; 95% CI −3.93 to −0.20%; P = .03) and THA 90-day readmissions (−1.00%, 95% CI −1.88 to −0.13%, P = .02), indicating a differential impact of CJR in women versus men for some outcomes. Conclusions: While sex disparities in THA/TKA persist, the CJR program demonstrates potential to impact such differences. Future research should focus on how potential mechanisms could be leveraged to reduce disparities.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Arthroplasty
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • arthroplasty
  • bundled payments
  • disparity
  • hospital
  • medicare
  • outcomes


Dive into the research topics of 'Did the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement Bundled Payment Program Impact Sex Disparities in Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasties?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this