Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) affect 5% of the population in developed countries and are characterized by progressive aortic dilatation with an unpredictable time course. This condition is more common in men than in women, and in smokers than in nonsmokers. If left untreated, AAA can result in aortic rupture and death. Pathologically, aortic extracellular matrix degradation, inflammation, and neovascularization are hallmarks of AAA. Diagnosis of AAA and subsequent surveillance utilize established aortic imaging methods, such as ultrasound, CT, and MRI. More-speculative diagnostic approaches include molecular and cellular imaging methods that interrogate the underlying pathological processes at work within the aneurysm. In this Review, we explore the current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the management of AAA. We also describe the diagnostic potential of new imaging techniques and therapeutic potential of new treatments for the management of small AAA.