Diagnostic and Therapeutic Considerations for Extramedullary Leukemia

Richard Bakst, Ann Powers, Joachim Yahalom

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment options available for extramedullary (EM) manifestations of leukemia including myeloid sarcoma (MS) and leukemia cutis (LC). Recent Findings: Advanced imaging using 18FDG-PET/CT is an effective screening tool for EM manifestations of leukemia. The role of radiation therapy has been more clearly delineated in the treatment of both MS and LC. FDA-approved targeted agents have improved outcomes in patients with AML but have not demonstrated improvements specifically for EM; however, a checkpoint inhibitor, Ipilimumab, holds promise in impacting local control for the treatment of AML-related EM. Summary: EM manifestations of leukemia pose significant therapeutic challenges. Treatment of EM is predicated on multiple factors including the presence of concomitant bone marrow involvement, AML-risk classification, and timing of presentation at initial diagnosis or relapse following systemic therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number75
JournalCurrent Oncology Reports
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2020


  • Acute myeloid leukemia
  • Chloroma
  • Extramedullary leukemia
  • Myeloid sarcoma


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