Diagnosis and treatment of depression following traumatic brain injury

Theodore Tsaousides, Teresa A. Ashman, Wayne A. Gordon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Depression is one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses among individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prevalence of post-TBI depression (PTBID) ranges from 12 to 60% and is generally higher than rates reported in the general population. The wide range in reported rates is attributed to methodological variability across studies, including measurement and sampling differences. Several systematic reviews have been published in the past 5 years, reporting on outcomes for depression across different classes of interventions, including pharmacological, biomedical and behavioural. The consensus across reviews is that more research is necessary to develop evidence-based practice guidelines. The present narrative review synthesises the findings of previous studies, focusing on the nature of the interventions, the eligibility criteria for inclusion and the assessment of outcome. Pharmacological studies are generally more rigorous methodologically, but provide mixed findings. Other biomedical interventions are only at the initial stages of research development, including case and pilot studies. The results of behavioural studies are positive regarding improvements in mood. However, the number of efficacy studies of behavioural interventions for depression is extremely limited. Recommendations for designing interventions are provided.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-76
Number of pages14
JournalBrain Impairment
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 2013


  • depression
  • interventions
  • neurorehabilitation
  • pharmacological
  • psychotherapeutic
  • traumatic brain injury


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