Diagnosing mucopolysaccharidosis IVA

Timothy C. Wood, Katie Harvey, Michael Beck, Maira Graeff Burin, Yin Hsiu Chien, Heather J. Church, Vânia D'Almeida, Otto P. Van Diggelen, Michael Fietz, Roberto Giugliani, Paul Harmatz, Sara M. Hawley, Wuh Liang Hwu, David Ketteridge, Zoltan Lukacs, Nicole Miller, Marzia Pasquali, Andrea Schenone, Jerry N. Thompson, Karen TyleeChunli Yu, Christian J. Hendriksz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) activity. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires agreement of clinical, radiographic, and laboratory findings. A group of biochemical genetics laboratory directors and clinicians involved in the diagnosis of MPS IVA, convened by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc., met to develop recommendations for diagnosis. The following conclusions were reached. Due to the wide variation and subtleties of radiographic findings, imaging of multiple body regions is recommended. Urinary glycosaminoglycan analysis is particularly problematic for MPS IVA and it is strongly recommended to proceed to enzyme activity testing even if urine appears normal when there is clinical suspicion of MPS IVA. Enzyme activity testing of GALNS is essential in diagnosing MPS IVA. Additional analyses to confirm sample integrity and rule out MPS IVB, multiple sulfatase deficiency, and mucolipidoses types II/III are critical as part of enzyme activity testing. Leukocytes or cultured dermal fibroblasts are strongly recommended for enzyme activity testing to confirm screening results. Molecular testing may also be used to confirm the diagnosis in many patients. However, two known or probable causative mutations may not be identified in all cases of MPS IVA. A diagnostic testing algorithm is presented which attempts to streamline this complex testing process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)293-307
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2013


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