Diabetes and cancer are both heterogeneous and multifactorial diseases with tremendous impact on health worldwide. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that certain malignancies may be associated with diabetes, as well as with diabetes risk factors and, perhaps, with certain diabetes treatments. Numerous biological mechanisms could account for these relationships. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, IGF-1 receptors, insulin, and the insulin receptor play roles in the development and progression of cancers. Although evidence from randomized controlled trials does not support or refute associations of diabetes and its treatments with either increased or reduced risk of cancer incidence or prognosis, consideration of malignancy incidence rates and the magnitude of the trials that would be required to address these issues explains why such studies may not be readily undertaken.
- Diabetes treatment
- Randomized controlled trial