Device innovation in cardiovascular medicine: a report from the European Society of Cardiology Cardiovascular Round Table

Stephan Windecker, Martine Gilard, Stephan Achenbach, Alain Cribier, Victoria Delgado, Nataliya Deych, Inga Drossart, Hélène Eltchaninoff, Alan G. Fraser, Alexandra Goncalves, Gerhard Hindricks, Richard Holborow, Arie Pieter Kappetein, John Kilmartin, Jana Kurucova, Thomas F. Lüscher, Roxana Mehran, Donal B. O’Connor, Mark Perkins, Eigil SamsetRalph Stephan von Bardeleben, Franz Weidinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Research performed in Europe has driven cardiovascular device innovation. This includes, but is not limited to, percutaneous coronary intervention, cardiac imaging, transcatheter heart valve implantation, and device therapy of cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure. An important part of future medical progress involves the evolution of medical technology and the ongoing development of artificial intelligence and machine learning. There is a need to foster an environment conducive to medical technology development and validation so that Europe can continue to play a major role in device innovation while providing high standards of safety. This paper summarizes viewpoints on the topic of device innovation in cardiovascular medicine at the European Society of Cardiology Cardiovascular Round Table, a strategic forum for high-level dialogue to discuss issues related to the future of cardiovascular health in Europe. Devices are developed and improved through an iterative process throughout their lifecycle. Early feasibility studies demonstrate proof of concept and help to optimize the design of a device. If successful, this should ideally be followed by randomized clinical trials comparing novel devices vs. accepted standards of care when available and the collection of post-market real-world evidence through registries. Unfortunately, standardized procedures for feasibility studies across various device categories have not yet been implemented in Europe. Cardiovascular imaging can be used to diagnose and characterize patients for interventions to improve procedural results and to monitor devices long term after implantation. Randomized clinical trials often use cardiac imaging-based inclusion criteria, while less frequently trials randomize patients to compare the diagnostic or prognostic value of different modalities. Applications using machine learning are increasingly important, but specific regulatory standards and pathways remain in development in both Europe and the USA. Standards are also needed for smart devices and digital technologies that support device-driven biomonitoring. Changes in device regulation introduced by the European Union aim to improve clinical evidence, transparency, and safety, but they may impact the speed of innovation, access, and availability. Device development programmes including dialogue on unmet needs and advice on study designs must be driven by a community of physicians, trialists, patients, regulators, payers, and industry to ensure that patients have access to innovative care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1104-1115
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Heart Journal
Issue number13
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2024


  • Artificial intelligence
  • Cardiac surgery
  • Fusion imaging
  • Invasive cardiology
  • Medical Device Regulation
  • Transcatheter aortic valve implantation


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