Purpose: To expand on previously described intraoperative aids by developing consensus-based best practice guidelines to optimize the approach to intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) events associated with “high-risk” spinal deformity surgery. Methods: Consensus was established among a group of experienced spinal deformity surgeons by way of the Delphi method. Through a series of iterative surveys and a final virtual consensus meeting, participants expressed their agreement (strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree) with various items. Consensus was defined as ≥ 80% agreement (“strongly agree” or “agree”). Near-consensus was defined as ≥ 60% but < 80%. Equipoise was ≥ 20% but < 60%, and consensus to exclude was < 20%. Results: 15 out of 15 (100%) invited surgeons agreed to participate. Final consensus supported inclusion of 105 items (53 in Response Algorithm, 13 in Ongoing Consideration of Etiology, 31 in Real-Time Data Scenarios, 8 in Patterns of IONM Loss), which were organized into a final set of best practice guidelines. Conclusion: Detailed consensus-based best practice guidelines and aids were successfully created with the intention to help organize and direct the surgical team in exploring and responding to neurological complications during high-risk spinal deformity surgery. Level of evidence: Level V.
- Best practice guideline
- Expert consensus
- Intraoperative neuromonitoring
- Neurological deficit
- Spinal deformity