Development of a machine learning algorithm to identify total and reverse shoulder arthroplasty implants from X-ray images

Eric A. Geng, Brian H. Cho, Aly A. Valliani, Varun Arvind, Akshar V. Patel, Samuel K. Cho, Jun S. Kim, Paul J. Cagle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Introduction: Demand for total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) has risen significantly and is projected to continue growing. From 2012 to 2017, the incidence of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) rose from 7.3 cases per 100,000 to 19.3 per 100,000. Anatomical TSA saw a growth from 9.5 cases per 100,000 to 12.5 per 100,000. Failure to identify implants in a timely manner can increase operative time, cost and risk of complications. Several machine learning models have been developed to perform medical image analysis. However, they have not been widely applied in shoulder surgery. The authors developed a machine learning model to identify shoulder implant manufacturers and type from anterior-posterior X-ray images. Methods: The model deployed was a convolutional neural network (CNN), which has been widely used in computer vision tasks. 696 radiographs were obtained from a single institution. 70% were used to train the model, while evaluation was done on 30%. Results: On the evaluation set, the model performed with an overall accuracy of 93.9% with positive predictive value, sensitivity and F-1 scores of 94% across 10 different implant types (4 reverse, 6 anatomical). Average identification time was 0.110 s per implant. Conclusion: This proof of concept study demonstrates that machine learning can assist with preoperative planning and improve cost-efficiency in shoulder surgery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-78
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Orthopaedics
StatePublished - Jan 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Digital medicine
  • Implant identification
  • Machine learning
  • Mobile application
  • Total shoulder arthroplasty


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