Determinants of health as predictors for differential antibody responses following SARS-CoV-2 primary and booster vaccination in an at-risk, longitudinal cohort

Felipe Echeverri Tribin, Erin Williams, Valeska Testamarck, Juan Manuel Carreño, Dominika Bielak, Temima Yellin, Florian Krammer, Michael Hoffer, Suresh Pallikkuth, Savita Pahwa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Post vaccine immunity following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination may be driven by extrinsic, or controllable and intrinsic, or inherent health factors. Thus, we investigated the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic on the peak antibody response following COVID-19 primary vaccination and on the trajectory of peak antibody magnitude and durability over time. Participants in a longitudinal cohort attended visits every 3 months for up to 2 years following enrollment. At baseline, participants provided information on their demographics, recreational behaviors, and comorbid health conditions which guided our model selection process. Blood samples were collected for serum processing and spike antibody testing at each visit. Crosssectional and longitudinal models (linear-mixed effects models) were generated to assess the relationship between selected intrinsic and extrinsic health factors on peak antibody following vaccination and to determine the influence of these predictors on antibody over time. Following cross-sectional analysis, we observed higher peak antibody titers after primary vaccination in females, those who reported recreational drug use, younger age, and prior COVID-19 history. Following booster vaccination, females and Hispanics had higher peak titers after the 3rd and 4th doses, respectively. Longitudinal models demonstrated that Moderna mRNA-1273 recipients, females, and those previously vaccinated had increased peak titers over time. Moreover, drug users and half-dose Moderna mRNA-1273 recipients had higher peak antibody titers over time following the first booster, while no predictive factors significantly affected post-second booster antibody responses. Overall, both intrinsic and extrinsic health factors play a significant role in shaping humoral immunogenicity after initial vaccination and the first booster. The absence of predictive factors for second booster immunogenicity suggests a more robust and consistent immune response after the second booster vaccine administration.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0292566
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume19
Issue number4 April
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2024

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