Design and rationale for the treating obstructive sleep apnea using targeted hypoglossal neurostimulation (OSPREY) trial

Ofer Jacobowitz, Alan R. Schwartz, Eric G. Lovett, Giovanni Ranuzzi, Atul Malhotra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects nearly 1 billion people worldwide, including approximately 35 million US residents. OSA has detrimental cardiovascular and neurocognitive consequences. Positive airway pressure corrects sleep disordered breathing but is not always tolerated or used sufficiently. Oral appliances and surgery provide alternatives in select populations but are variably effective. Hypoglossal nerve stimulation can effectively treat obstructive sleep apnea. Targeted hypoglossal nerve stimulation (THN) is simpler than incumbent technology with no sensor and an easier, proximal electrode implantation. The third clinical study of THN, THN3, was the first randomized, controlled trial of hypoglossal nerve stimulation to demonstrate significant improvement of sleep disordered breathing in OSA. The present investigation reports the design of a novel trial of targeted stimulation to provide additional Level 1 evidence in moderate to severe obstructive apnea. OSPREY is a randomized, parallel-arm, 13-month trial wherein all subjects are implanted, 2/3 are activated at Month 1 (“Treatment”) and 1/3 are activated at Month 7 (“Control”). The primary endpoint is the difference in apnea-hypopnea index response rates between Treatment and Control groups at Month 7. Secondary endpoints include quality of life and oximetry metrics. OSPREY follows an adaptive “Goldilocks” design which optimizes the number of subjects with the need for high-confidence results. A maximum of 150 subjects is allowed, at which study power of >95% is predicted. Interim analyses begin once 50 patients are randomized and recur after each 20 additional randomizations to detect early success or futility. OSPREY is a unique, efficient trial that should provide high-confidence confirmation of the safety and efficacy of targeted hypoglossal nerve stimulation for moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106804
JournalContemporary Clinical Trials
StatePublished - Aug 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Adaptive design
  • Controlled trial
  • Hypoglossal nerve
  • Neurostimulation
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Randomized
  • Sleep
  • Surgical treatment
  • Targeted hypoglossal nerve stimulation


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