Importance: Dermoscopy education in US dermatology residency programs varies widely, and there is currently no existing expert consensus identifying what is most important for resident physicians to know. Objectives: To identify consensus-based learning constructs representing an appropriate foundational proficiency in dermoscopic image interpretation for dermatology resident physicians, including dermoscopic diagnoses, associated features, and representative teaching images. Defining these foundational proficiency learning constructs will facilitate further skill development in dermoscopic image interpretation to help residents achieve clinical proficiency. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 2-phase modified Delphi surveying technique was used to identify resident learning constructs in 3 sequential sets of surveys - diagnoses, features, and images. Expert panelists were recruited through an email distributed to the 32 members of the Pigmented Lesion Subcommittee of the Melanoma Prevention Working Group. Twenty-six (81%) opted to participate. Surveys were distributed using RedCAP software. Main Outcomes and Measures: Consensus on diagnoses, associated dermoscopic features, and representative teaching images reflective of a foundational proficiency in dermoscopic image interpretation for US dermatology resident physicians. Results: Twenty-six pigmented lesion and dermoscopy specialists completed 8 rounds of surveys, with 100% (26/26) response rate in all rounds. A final list of 32 diagnoses and 116 associated dermoscopic features was generated. Three hundred seventy-eight representative teaching images reached consensus with panelists. Conclusions and Relevance: Consensus achieved in this modified Delphi process identified common dermoscopic diagnoses, associated features, and representative teaching images reflective of a foundational proficiency in dermoscopic image interpretation for dermatology residency training. This list of validated objectives provides a consensus-based foundation of key learning points in dermoscopy to help resident physicians achieve clinical proficiency in dermoscopic image interpretation.