Demographic and socioeconomic predictors of treatment delays, pathologic stage, and survival among patients with penile cancer: A report from the National Cancer Database

Kyrollis Attalla, David J. Paulucci, Kyle Blum, Harry Anastos, Kelvin A. Moses, Ketan K. Badani, Philippe E. Spiess, John P. Sfakianos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives To evaluate whether socioeconomic factors affect pathologic stage, treatment delays, pathologic upstaging, and overall survival (OS) in patients with penile cancer (PC). Patients and methods A total of 13,283 eligible patients diagnosed with PC from 1998 to 2012 were identified from the National Cancer Database. Socioeconomic, demographic and pathologic variables were used in multivariable regression models to identify predictors of pathologic T stage ≥2, pathologic lymph node positivity, cT to pT upstaging, treatment delays, and OS. Results A 5-year OS was 61.5% with a median follow-up of 41.7 months. Pathologic T stage ≥2 was identified in 3,521 patients (27.2%), 1,173 (9.2%) had ≥pN1 and 388 (7.9%) experienced cT to pT upstaging. Variables associated with a higher likelihood of pathologic T stage ≥2 included no insurance (OR = 1.79, P<0.001), lower higher education based on zip code (OR = 1.13, P = 0.027), black race (OR = 1.17, P = 0.046) and Hispanic ethnicity (OR = 1.66, P<0.001). Patients with Hispanic ethnicity (OR = 1.46; P<0.001) or living in nonmetropolitan areas were more likely to have ≥pN1 (P = 0.001). Lack of insurance was associated with cT to pT upstaging (OR = 2.05, P = 0.001) as was living in an urban vs. metropolitan area (OR = 1.35, P = 0.031). In addition to TNM stage, black vs. white race (HR = 1.56, P<0.001), living in an urban vs. metropolitan area (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.18, P = 0.022), age (HR = 1.04, P<0.001) and Charlson score (HR = 1.49, P<0.001) were associated with lower OS. Conclusion Socioeconomic variables including no insurance, lower education, race, Hispanic ethnicity, and nonmetropolitan residence were found to be poor prognostic factors. Increased educational awareness of this rare disease may help reduce delays in diagnosis, improve prognosis and ultimately prevent deaths among socioeconomically disadvantaged men with PC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14.e17-14.e24
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Volume36
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2018

Keywords

  • Disparities
  • National Cancer Database
  • Overall survival
  • Penile cancer
  • Socioeconomic status

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