Delineating the autoimmune mechanisms in Graves' disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

98 Scopus citations

Abstract

The immunologic processes involved in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), particularly Graves' disease (GD), are similar to other autoimmune diseases with the emphasis on the antibodies as the most unique aspect. These characteristics include a lymphocytic infiltrate at the target organs, the presence of antigen-reactive T and B cells and antibodies, and the establishment of animal models of GD by antibody transfer or immunization with antigen. Similar to other autoimmune diseases, risk factors for GD include the presence of multiple susceptibility genes, including certain HLA alleles, and the TSHR gene itself. In addition, a variety of known risk factors and precipitators have been characterized including the influence of sex and sex hormones, pregnancy, stress, infection, iodine and other potential environmental factors. The pathogenesis of GD is likely the result of a breakdown in the tolerance mechanisms, both at central and peripheral levels. Different subsets of T and B cells together with their regulatory populations play important roles in the propagation and maintenance of the disease process. Understanding different mechanistic in the complex system biology interplay will help to identify unique factors contributing to the AITD pathogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)191-203
Number of pages13
JournalImmunologic Research
Volume54
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • AITD
  • Autoantibody
  • Autoimmunity
  • GD
  • HT
  • TSHR

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Delineating the autoimmune mechanisms in Graves' disease'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this