Defining the risk of SARS-CoV-2 variants on immune protection

Marciela M. DeGrace, Elodie Ghedin, Matthew B. Frieman, Florian Krammer, Alba Grifoni, Arghavan Alisoltani, Galit Alter, Rama R. Amara, Ralph S. Baric, Dan H. Barouch, Jesse D. Bloom, Louis Marie Bloyet, Gaston Bonenfant, Adrianus C.M. Boon, Eli A. Boritz, Debbie L. Bratt, Traci L. Bricker, Liliana Brown, William J. Buchser, Juan Manuel CarreñoLiel Cohen-Lavi, Tamarand L. Darling, Meredith E. Davis-Gardner, Bethany L. Dearlove, Han Di, Meike Dittmann, Nicole A. Doria-Rose, Daniel C. Douek, Christian Drosten, Venkata Viswanadh Edara, Ali Ellebedy, Thomas P. Fabrizio, Guido Ferrari, Will M. Fischer, William C. Florence, Ron A.M. Fouchier, John Franks, Adolfo García-Sastre, Adam Godzik, Ana Silvia Gonzalez-Reiche, Aubree Gordon, Bart L. Haagmans, Peter J. Halfmann, David D. Ho, Michael R. Holbrook, Yaoxing Huang, Sarah L. James, Lukasz Jaroszewski, Trushar Jeevan, Robert M. Johnson, Terry C. Jones, Astha Joshi, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Lisa Kercher, Marion P.G. Koopmans, Bette Korber, Eilay Koren, Richard A. Koup, Eric B. LeGresley, Jacob E. Lemieux, Mariel J. Liebeskind, Zhuoming Liu, Brandi Livingston, James P. Logue, Yang Luo, Adrian B. McDermott, Margaret J. McElrath, Victoria A. Meliopoulos, Vineet D. Menachery, David C. Montefiori, Barbara Mühlemann, Vincent J. Munster, Jenny E. Munt, Manoj S. Nair, Antonia Netzl, Anna M. Niewiadomska, Sijy O’Dell, Andrew Pekosz, Stanley Perlman, Marjorie C. Pontelli, Barry Rockx, Morgane Rolland, Paul W. Rothlauf, Sinai Sacharen, Richard H. Scheuermann, Stephen D. Schmidt, Michael Schotsaert, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Robert A. Seder, Mayya Sedova, Alessandro Sette, Reed S. Shabman, Xiaoying Shen, Pei Yong Shi, Maulik Shukla, Viviana Simon, Spencer Stumpf, Nancy J. Sullivan, Larissa B. Thackray, James Theiler, Paul G. Thomas, Sanja Trifkovic, Sina Türeli, Samuel A. Turner, Maria A. Vakaki, Harm van Bakel, Laura A. VanBlargan, Leah R. Vincent, Zachary S. Wallace, Li Wang, Maple Wang, Pengfei Wang, Wei Wang, Scott C. Weaver, Richard J. Webby, Carol D. Weiss, David E. Wentworth, Stuart M. Weston, Sean P.J. Whelan, Bradley M. Whitener, Samuel H. Wilks, Xuping Xie, Baoling Ying, Hyejin Yoon, Bin Zhou, Tomer Hertz, Derek J. Smith, Michael S. Diamond, Diane J. Post, Mehul S. Suthar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

97 Scopus citations


The global emergence of many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants jeopardizes the protective antiviral immunity induced after infection or vaccination. To address the public health threat caused by the increasing SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases within the National Institutes of Health established the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) programme. This effort was designed to provide a real-time risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 variants that could potentially affect the transmission, virulence, and resistance to infection- and vaccine-induced immunity. The SAVE programme is a critical data-generating component of the US Government SARS-CoV-2 Interagency Group to assess implications of SARS-CoV-2 variants on diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics, and for communicating public health risk. Here we describe the coordinated approach used to identify and curate data about emerging variants, their impact on immunity and effects on vaccine protection using animal models. We report the development of reagents, methodologies, models and notable findings facilitated by this collaborative approach and identify future challenges. This programme is a template for the response to rapidly evolving pathogens with pandemic potential by monitoring viral evolution in the human population to identify variants that could reduce the effectiveness of countermeasures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)640-652
Number of pages13
Issue number7911
StatePublished - 26 May 2022


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