Deep Learning of Simultaneous Intracranial and Scalp EEG for Prediction, Detection, and Lateralization of Mesial Temporal Lobe Seizures

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In people with drug resistant epilepsy (DRE), seizures are unpredictable, often occurring with little or no warning. The unpredictability causes anxiety and much of the morbidity and mortality of seizures. In this work, 102 seizures of mesial temporal lobe onset were analyzed from 19 patients with DRE who had simultaneous intracranial EEG (iEEG) and scalp EEG as part of their surgical evaluation. The first aim of this paper was to develop machine learning models for seizure prediction and detection (i) using iEEG only, (ii) scalp EEG only and (iii) jointly analyzing both iEEG and scalp EEG. The second goal was to test if machine learning could detect a seizure on scalp EEG when that seizure was not detectable by the human eye (surface negative) but was seen in iEEG. The final question was to determine if the deep learning algorithm could correctly lateralize the seizure onset. The seizure detection and prediction problems were addressed jointly by training Deep Neural Networks (DNN) on 4 classes: non-seizure, pre-seizure, left mesial temporal onset seizure and right mesial temporal onset seizure. To address these aims, the classification accuracy was tested using two deep neural networks (DNN) against 3 different types of similarity graphs which used different time series of EEG data. The convolutional neural network (CNN) with the Waxman similarity graph yielded the highest accuracy across all EEG data (iEEG, scalp EEG and combined). Specifically, 1 second epochs of EEG were correctly assigned to their seizure, pre-seizure, or non-seizure category over 98% of the time. Importantly, the pre-seizure state was classified correctly in the vast majority of epochs (>97%). Detection from scalp EEG data alone of surface negative seizures and the seizures with the delayed scalp onset (the surface negative portion) was over 97%. In addition, the model accurately lateralized all of the seizures from scalp data, including the surface negative seizures. This work suggests that highly accurate seizure prediction and detection is feasible using either intracranial or scalp EEG data. Furthermore, surface negative seizures can be accurately predicted, detected and lateralized with machine learning even when they are not visible to the human eye.

Original languageEnglish
Article number705119
JournalFrontiers in Neurology
StatePublished - 11 Nov 2021


  • LSTM (long short term memory networks)
  • convolutional neural networks
  • deep neural networks
  • intracranial and scalp EEG
  • seizure detection
  • seizure lateralization
  • seizure prediction


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