Decrease in Gait Speed Over Time Is Associated With Increase in Number of Depression Symptoms in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

Inbar Lavie, Michal Schnaider Beeri, Yonathan Schwartz, Laili Soleimani, Anthony Heymann, Joseph Azuri, Ramit Ravona-Springer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: We examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships of motor functions with depression in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: Participants (n = 984) were from the longitudinal Israel Diabetes and Cognitive Decline (IDCD) study. They were initially cognitively normal and underwent evaluations of motor functions (grip strength and gait speed) and of depression (using the 15-item version of the Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]) approximately every 18 months. We applied Hierarchical Linear Mixed Models (HLMM) to investigate the associations between motor functions and depression adjusting for sociodemographic, cardiovascular factors, overall cognitive score, and subjective report of exhaustion. Results: Participants’ baseline characteristics were 72 (±5) years of age (59.6% males), 13 (±4) years of education, Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) score of 28.01 (±1.78), and a GDS score of (2 ± 2.00), consistent with normal cognitive status and lack of major affective symptomatology. Slower gait speed at baseline was associated with higher GDS scores (p = .001) and with their increase over time (p = .049). A decrease in walking speed from baseline was associated with an increase in GDS scores (p = .015). Lower grip strength at baseline was associated with higher GDS scores (p = .002), but not with trajectories in GDS scores over time. A faster decrease in grip strength from baseline was associated with a faster increase in GDS scores (p = .022). Conclusions: Both gait speed and grip strength are cross-sectionally associated with depression. However, only gait speed and its decrease over time can potentially be used to predict incident depression symptoms, thus facilitating the introduction of depression prevention strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1504-1512
Number of pages9
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Volume78
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2023

Keywords

  • Depression
  • Gait speed
  • Geriatric depression scale
  • Grip strength
  • Motor function
  • Type 2 diabetes

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