Deciduous tooth biomarkers reveal atypical fetal inflammatory regulation in autism spectrum disorder

Dani Dumitriu, Elena Baldwin, Roozie J.J. Coenen, Luke A. Hammond, Darcy S. Peterka, Lynne Heilbrun, Richard E. Frye, Raymond Palmer, Hjalmar Nobel Norrman, Anna Fridell, Karl Lundin Remnelius, Johan Isaksson, Christine Austin, Paul Curtin, Sven Bölte, Manish Arora

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Atypical regulation of inflammation has been proposed in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, measuring the temporal profile of fetal inflammation associated with future ASD diagnosis has not been possible. Here, we present a method to generate approximately daily profiles of prenatal and early childhood inflammation as measured by developmentally archived C-reactive protein (CRP) in incremental layers of deciduous tooth dentin. In our discovery population, a group of Swedish twins, we found heightened inflammation in the third trimester in children with future ASD diagnosis relative to controls (n = 66; 14 ASD cases; critical window: −90 to −50 days before birth). In our replication study, in the US, we observed a similar increase in CRP in ASD cases during the third trimester (n = 47; 23 ASD cases; −128 to −21 days before birth). Our results indicate that the third trimester is a critical period of atypical fetal inflammatory regulation in ASD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106247
Issue number3
StatePublished - 17 Mar 2023


  • Clinical neuroscience
  • Immunology


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