Current use of bone substitutes in maxillofacial surgery

Satish Govindaraj, Peter D. Costantino, Craig D. Friedman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


The use of bone substitutes in the field of facial plastic and reconstructive surgery is well established. Because of the complexity of the anatomy in the head and neck region, reconstruction and augmentation of this area pose a challenge to the surgeon. In addition, the shortcomings of autogenous bone, such as resorption and donor site morbidity, have led to the need for alloplastic implants in the field of facial plastic surgery. Multiple alloplastic implants are currently in use today; however, those compounds that contain calcium, silicon, and carbon have been examined more closely in this article. This is because of their ability to osseointegrate and osseoconduct with surrounding fibro-osseous tissue, as well as demonstrate a higher immunogenic tolerance by the human body. The discussion of each compound includes a description of its composition and structure, the advantages and shortcomings of the material, and its current uses in the field of facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. With a better understanding of the available alloplastic implants, the surgeon can make a more informed decision as to which implant would be most suitable in a particular patient.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-81
Number of pages9
JournalFacial Plastic Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1999


  • Bone
  • Craniomaxillofacial
  • Substitutes


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