Groundbreaking research in immunology and cancer biology in the last few decades has led to the discovery and development of novel therapeutics, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies, which have revolutionized the clinical care of patients with metastatic melanoma. Updated data from the largest clinical trials continue to support the use of these treatment modalities, both in the metastatic and in adjuvant settings, with studies showing the predicted plateau effect on survival curves. However, with growing evidence that neoadjuvant therapy is also associated with high rates of recurrence-free survival, the question about whether patients should receive adjuvant or neoadjuvant treatment raises new questions about therapeutic options. Finally, management after resistance and intervention with novel immunotherapies are newer challenges, particularly in the field of non-cutaneous melanoma.

Original languageEnglish
Article number221
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2 Jan 2021


  • Adjuvant
  • Clinical trials
  • Melanoma
  • Metastatic
  • Neoadjuvant
  • Resistance
  • Toxicity


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