Introduction: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of chronic total occlusion (CTO) can be challenging, but high success rates (85–90%) are currently achieved at experienced centers with approximately 3% risk for a major periprocedural complication. Areas covered: CTO PCI complications can be categorized according to location such as cardiac and non-cardiac (vascular access complications, thromboembolic complications, contrast-related and radiation injury) complications. Cardiac complications are further subdivided into coronary (acute closure, perforation, and equipment loss or entrapment) and non-coronary (hypotension, myocardial infarction, tamponade, arrhythmias). Expert opinion: In this article, we review strategies to prevent and treat CTO PCI complications. Careful monitoring throughout the case enables prevention and early detection of a complication. If a complication occurs, rapid implementation of treatment using an algorithmic approach can minimize its adverse impact.
- chronic total occlusion
- percutaneous coronary intervention