Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-I (HIV) is a health disparities issue that affects culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) and underrepresented minority populations to a greater degree than non-Hispanic white populations. Neurologically speaking, CALD populations experience worse HIV-related health outcomes, which are exacerbated by inadequate neurocognitive measures, poor normative samples, and the complex interplay of sociocultural factors that may affect test interpretation. Although cross-cultural neuropsychologists are working diligently to correct this gap in the literature, currently, studies examining neurocognitive outcomes among CALD populations are sparse. The most well-studied CALD groups are of African American/Black and Latinx adults in the US, and the chapter therefore focuses on these studies. There is more limited work among other populations in the US, such as Asians, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives, and even fewer studies for many CALD populations outside of the US. For example, HIV neuropsychology data is rare or nonexistent in the First Peoples of Australia and Indigenous People of Canada. It is often not adequately reported in Europe for the migrant populations within those countries or other world regions that have historically large multicultural populations (e.g., South America, Caribbean countries, Asia, and Africa). Therefore, this chapter reviews HIV-related health disparities faced by CALD populations with focus on North American research where it has been specifically studied, with particular attention given to disparities in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). International data was also included for research with focus on First Peoples of Australia and Indigenous People of Canada. The chapter also examines other sociocultural and health factors, including global and regional (e.g., rural versus urban) considerations, migration, and gender. Further, guidelines for incorporating sociocultural consideration into assessment and interpretation of neurocognitive data and HAND diagnosis when working with HIV-positive CALD populations that would be relevant internationally are provided.