Critical Appraisal Tools for Surgeons

Farrah Hussain, Sheila Sprague, Harry E. Rubash

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Evidence-based orthopaedic surgery utilizes a clear definition of relevant clinical questions through a literature search pertaining to the questions, a critical appraisal of available evidence and its applicability to the clinical situation, and a balanced application of the evidence to the clinical problem. Skills in critical appraising or grading the orthopaedic literature in order to make informed decisions about patient care based on the evidence available is vital to the successful practice of evidence-based orthopaedic surgery. Because surgical interventions often have inherent benefits and associated risks, a three-step approach involving the determination of the validity, results, and applicability of a study can be helpful in appraising studies investigating surgical interventions or therapy, as well as studies investigating diagnostic tests and prognosis. Along with this three-step approach, there are other tools, such as the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) and AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines, REsearch and Evaluation) statements, for critically appraising different types of studies. These tools are designed and validated for use internationally and possess their own benefits and limitations.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEvidence-Based Orthopedics
Number of pages5
ISBN (Print)1405184760, 9781405184762
StatePublished - 31 Oct 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Clinical practice guidelines
  • Critical appraisal
  • Evidence-based orthopaedic surgery
  • Randomized controlled trial
  • Study design
  • Surgical trial
  • Validity


Dive into the research topics of 'Critical Appraisal Tools for Surgeons'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this