COVID-19 and renin-angiotensin system modulators: what do we know so far?

Angel de la Cruz, Shoaib Ashraf, Timothy J. Vittorio, Jonathan N. Bella

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Introduction: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory system-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an important medical problem worldwide. Increased risk of mortality has been reported in patients with cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension (HTN). SARS-CoV-2 invades the pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells by binding to the surface receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) modulators can increase levels of ACE2. Thus, concerns have been raised regarding an increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection in patients receiving RAS antagonists. Areas covered: We reviewed current literature about the potential association between the utilization of RAS inhibitors, namely angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-inhibitors) and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) and likelihood of developing severe COVID-19 infection and whether or not continuation of these medications is appropriate in patients with active disease. Expert opinion: The joint statement from the American College of Cardiology (ACC), American Heart Association (AHA), European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA), strongly recommends that physicians should not initiate or withdraw their usual RAS-related treatments (ACE-inhibitor/ARB) to COVID-19 infected patients with cardiovascular disease. The decision should be made based upon each patient’s clinical presentation and hemodynamic status.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)743-748
Number of pages6
JournalExpert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2020


  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme
  • Covid-19
  • coronavirus
  • renin-angiotensin system
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2


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