The increasing rate of thyroid cancer may be attributable to endocrine disruptive chemicals. Lindane is a persistent organochlorine pesticide with endocrine disruptive properties that has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. The aim of this ecological study was to evaluate potential correlation between lindane exposure and thyroid cancer incidence in the United States (US). Data on statewide age-adjusted thyroid cancer incidence rate (per 100,000 people) was obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for all US states for 2019. Lindane use estimates per cropland (kg/acres cropland) were then overlaid on the map of age-adjusted thyroid cancer incidence rate using ArcGIS. The trend of lindane use in the US between 1992 and 2007 was calculated using the Mann Kendall correlation test. The correlation between statewide lindane use and age-adjusted thyroid cancer incidence rates was calculated using Spearman correlation. Lindane use in the US decreased significantly between 1992 and 2007 (T = −0.617; p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant correlation between lindane use in 1992 and thyroid cancer incidence rate for any of the years between 1999 and 2019. Our results suggest that restrictions clearly seem to be effective in reducing lindane use, however, more research is needed for individual pesticides and thyroid cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13158
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • EDCs
  • endocrine disruptive chemicals
  • environmental health
  • epidemiology
  • lindane
  • pesticides
  • thyroid cancer


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