Coronary Calcification and Long-Term Outcomes According to Drug-Eluting Stent Generation

Paul Guedeney, Bimmer E. Claessen, Roxana Mehran, Gary S. Mintz, Mengdan Liu, Sabato Sorrentino, Gennaro Giustino, Serdar Farhan, Martin B. Leon, Patrick W. Serruys, Pieter C. Smits, Clemens von Birgelen, Ziad A. Ali, Philippe Généreux, Björn Redfors, Mahesh V. Madhavan, Ori Ben-Yehuda, Gregg W. Stone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations


Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of coronary artery calcification (CAC) on outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention and the respective performance of first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES). Background: Whether contemporary DES have improved the long-term prognosis after percutaneous coronary intervention in lesions with severe CAC is unknown. Methods: Individual patient data were pooled from 18 randomized trials evaluating DES, categorized according to the presence of angiography core laboratory–confirmed moderate or severe CAC. Major endpoints were the patient-oriented composite endpoint (death, myocardial infarction [MI], or any revascularization) and the device-oriented composite endpoint of target lesion failure (cardiac death, target vessel MI, or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization). Multivariate Cox proportional regression with study as a random effect was used to assess 5-year outcomes. Results: A total of 19,833 patients were included. Moderate or severe CAC was present in 1 or more target lesions in 6,211 patients (31.3%) and was associated with increased 5-year risk for the patient-oriented composite endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR]: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.20) and target lesion failure (adjHR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.34), as well as death, MI, and ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization. In patients with CAC, use of second-generation DES compared with first-generation DES was associated with reductions in the 5-year risk for the patient-oriented composite endpoint (adjHR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.00) and target lesion failure (adjHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.87), as well as death or MI, ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization, and stent thrombosis. The relative treatment effects of second-generation compared with first-generation DES were consistent in patients with and without moderate or severe CAC, although outcomes were consistently better with contemporary devices. Conclusions: In this large-scale study, percutaneous coronary intervention of target lesion moderate or severe CAC was associated with adverse patient-oriented and device-oriented adverse outcomes at 5 years. These detrimental effects were mitigated with second-generation DES.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1417-1428
Number of pages12
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number12
StatePublished - 22 Jun 2020


  • coronary artery calcification
  • drug-eluting stent
  • percutaneous coronary intervention


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