Coordinated development of the limb musculoskeletal system: Tendon and muscle patterning and integration with the skeleton

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Abstract

Functional movement and stability of the limb depends on an organized and fully integrated musculoskeletal system composed of skeleton, muscle, and tendon. Much of our current understanding of musculoskeletal development is based on studies that focused on the development and differentiation of individual tissues. Likewise, research on patterning events have been largely limited to the primary skeletal elements and the mechanisms that regulate soft tissue patterning, the development of the connections between tissues, and their interdependent development are only beginning to be elucidated. This review will therefore highlight recent exciting discoveries in this field, with an emphasis on tendon and muscle patterning and their integrated development with the skeleton and skeletal attachments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)420-428
Number of pages9
JournalDevelopmental Biology
Volume429
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Sep 2017

Keywords

  • Muscle patterning
  • Musculoskeletal development
  • Tendon patterning

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