Study Design:Retrospective chart review of patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using low-dose recombinant human bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP)-2.Objective:Determine whether severity and incidence of respiratory complications after ACDF surgery are decreased when using a low-dose BMP-infused sponge within a constrained carrier and postoperative IV and oral steroids.Summary of Background Data:Many physicians avoid using BMP in anterior cervical spine fusions because of concern for an increased incidence of dysphagia, significant prevertebral swelling, and airway edema compromise. Pilot studies have shown that the local application of steroids may decrease the incidence of postoperative airway edema and dysphagia. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the safety of immediate postoperative tapered steroid use following low-dose rhBMP-2 completely contained inside either an allograft or PEEK cage in reducing the severity and incidence of respiratory complications following ACDF.Materials and Methods:Forty-seven patients between 33 and 74 years of age, undergoing 1-, 2-, 3-, or 4-level ACDFs augmented with a fraction of a small sponge of rhBMP-2 (0.525 mg/level) within an allograft or PEEK cage and prescribed IV and oral postoperative steroids between January 1, 2008 and November 1, 2016. The incidence of complications such as dyspnea, dysphagia, airway issues, edema ectopic bone osteolysis, radiculitis, and nonunion were collected using medical charts. Additional data regarding length of hospital stay and readmissions were also recorded.Results:No life-threatening respiratory events, such as prolonged intubation, re-intubation, or readmission for labored breathing, were observed. No complications referable to steroids such as delayed healing, uncontrollable blood sugar, or diabetes were encountered in this series.Conclusions:This study provides evidence that a tapered dose of steroids and a contained delivery route significantly decreases postoperative respiratory compromise incidence and magnitude following anterior cervical spine fusion using low-dose rhBMP-2.