Consensus on treatment goals in hereditary angioedema: A global Delphi initiative

Marcus Maurer, Emel Aygören-Pürsün, Aleena Banerji, Jonathan A. Bernstein, Henrik Balle Boysen, Paula J. Busse, Anette Bygum, Teresa Caballero, Anthony J. Castaldo, Sandra C. Christiansen, Timothy Craig, Henriette Farkas, Anete S. Grumach, Michihiro Hide, Constance H. Katelaris, H. Henry Li, Hilary Longhurst, William R. Lumry, Markus Magerl, Inmaculada Martinez-SaguerMarc A. Riedl, Yuxiang Zhi, Bruce Zuraw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Background: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare, life-threatening genetic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of subcutaneous or submucosal angioedema. The ultimate goals of treatment for HAE remain ill-defined. Objectives: The aim of this Delphi process was to define the goals of HAE treatment and to examine which factors should be considered when assessing disease control and normalization of the patient's life. Methods: The Delphi panel comprised 23 participants who were selected based on involvement with scientific research on HAE or coauthorship of the most recent update and revision of the World Allergy Organization/European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology guideline on HAE. The process comprised 3 rounds of voting. The final round aimed to aggregate the opinions of the expert panel and to achieve consensus. Results: Two direct consensus questions were posed in round 2, based on the responses received in round 1, and the panel agreed that the goals of treatment are to achieve total control of the disease and to normalize the patient's life. For the third round of voting, 21 statements were considered, with the participants reaching consensus on 18. It is clear from the wide-ranging consensus statements that the burdens of disease and treatment should be considered when assessing disease control and normalization of patients’ lives. Conclusions: The ultimate goal for HAE treatment is to achieve no angioedema attacks. The availability of improved treatments and disease management over the last decade now makes complete control of HAE a realistic possibility for most patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1526-1532
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • C1-INH deficiency
  • Hereditary angioedema
  • acute treatment
  • prophylaxis
  • quality of life
  • treatment goals


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